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Garden cucumber

Botanical Name:

Cucumis sativus

Common Name:

Garden cucumber,Cucumber,Cucumbers,Garden Cucumbers,Gherkin,Gherkins,Immature Cucumbers


Cucumber, with peel, rawNutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)Energy65 kJ (16 kcal)Carbohydrates3.63 gSugars1.67Dietary fiber0.5 g Fat0.11 g Protein0.65 g VitaminsQuantity %DVThiamine (B1)2% 0.027 mgRiboflavin (B2)3% 0.033 mgNiacin (B3)1% 0.098 mgPantothenic acid (B5)5% 0.259 mgVitamin B63% 0.04 mgFolate (B9)2% 7 μgVitamin C3% 2.8 mgVitamin K16% 16.4 μg MineralsQuantity %DVCalcium2% 16 mgIron2% 0.28 mgMagnesium4% 13 mgManganese4% 0.079 mgPhosphorus3% 24 mgPotassium3% 147 mgSodium0% 2 mgZinc2% 0.2 mg Other constituentsQuantityWater95.23 gFluoride1.3 µg Link to USDA database entry Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International unitsPercentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.The cucumber is a creeping vine that roots in the ground and grows up trellises or other supporting frames, wrapping around supports with thin, spiraling tendrils. The plant may also root in a soilless medium, whereby it will sprawl along the ground in lieu of a supporting structure. The vine has large leaves that form a canopy over the fruits. The fruit of typical cultivars of cucumber is roughly cylindrical, but elongated with tapered ends, and may be as large as 62 centimeters (24 in) long and 10 centimeters (4 in) in diameter.Cucumber fruits consist of 95% water (see nutrition table).In botanical terms, the cucumber is classified as a pepo, a type of botanical berry with a hard outer rind and no internal divisions. However, much like tomatoes and squashes, it is often perceived, prepared, and eaten as a vegetable.   A tendril emerges from cucumber vines to facilitate climbing   A string lattice supports vine growth   A bulb-shaped cucumber hanging on the vine   Organic gardener holding a fresh salad cucumber Flowering and pollination A few cultivars of cucumber are parthenocarpic, the blossoms of which create seedless fruit without pollination, as such degrades the quality for these cultivars. In the United States, these are usually grown in greenhouses, where bees are excluded. In Europe, they are grown outdoors in some regions, where bees are likewise excluded. Most cucumber cultivars, however, are seeded and require pollination. For this purpose, thousands of honey beehives are annually carried to cucumber fields just before bloom. Cucumbers may also be pollinated via bumblebees and several other bee species. Most cucumbers that require pollination are self-incompatible, thus requiring the pollen of another plant in order to form seeds and fruit. Some self-compatible cultivars exist that are related to the 'Lemon' cultivar. Symptoms of inadequate pollination include fruit abortion and misshapen fruit. Partially-pollinated flowers may develop fruit that are green and develop normally near the stem end, but are pale yellow and withered at the blossom end. Traditional cultivars produce male blossoms first, then female, in about equivalent numbers. Newer gynoecious hybrid cultivars produce almost all female blossoms. They may have a pollenizer cultivar interplanted, and the number of beehives per unit area is increased, but temperature changes induce male flowers even on these plants, which may be sufficient for pollination to occur. Genomic informationNCBI genome ID1639PloidydiploidGenome size323.99 MbSequenced organellemitochondrionOrganelle size244.82 MbYear of completion2011Nutrition, aroma, and taste   trans,cis-2,6-Nonadienal, or cucumber aldehyde, is a component of the distinctive aroma of cucumbers. In a 100-gram (3 ⁄2-ounce) serving, raw cucumber (with peel) is 95% water, provides 67 kilojoules (16 kilocalories) of food energy, and supplies low content of essential nutrients, as it is notable only for vitamin K at 16% of the Daily Value (table). Depending on variety, cucumbers may have a mild melon aroma and flavor, in part resulting from unsaturated aldehydes, such as (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal, and the cis- and trans- isomers of 2-nonenal. The slightly bitter taste of cucumber rind results from cucurbitacins.In 2009, an international team of researchers announced they had sequenced the cucumber genome.

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Bloom Time


Plant Type

Vine, Annual, Edible, Vegetable




Yellow five-petaled flowers. Male and female flowers grow separately on the same plant. Multiple plants are required for successful pollination with the exception of seedless varieties. Some varieties have only female flowers and need a traditionally-flowering plant for pollination.


The "vegetable" is botanically a fruit– it is a pepo, a berry with a hard rind. Long and cylindrical, starting out prickly when young and smoothing out to a bumpy surface as it matures. Length and girth can vary based on cultivar and culinary purpose but grow at least 3 in long. Some varieties are bred to be seedless.

How to Grow




Full Sun, Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)



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