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Common evening primrose

Botanical Name:

Oenothera biennis

Common Name:

Common evening primrose,Common evening-primrose,King's cure-all,Evening Star,Sun Drop,Coffee Plant,Cure-All,Fever Plant,Field Primrose,Four O'Clock,German Rampion,Large Rampion,Night Willowherb,Scabbish,Scurvish,Wild Four O'Clock,Evening Primrose,Night Willow-herb,Hoary Evening Primrose

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Description

At the top of a leafy stalk bloom lemon-scented, large yellow flowers. Stem hairy, often purple-tinged. King’s cure-all or common evening primrose is an erect, 2-6 ft. biennial with leafy, branched stems from a basal rosette. The bright-yellow, four-petaled flowers, up to 2 inches across, open at night. These fragrant flowers occur in a many-flowered, terminal spike. The flowers of this night-flowering biennial open in the evening and close by noon. The plant takes 2 years to complete its life cycle, with basal leaves becoming established the first year, and flowering occurring the second. The roots are edible, and the seeds are important as bird feed. Most of the evening-primroses have yellow flowers. Showy Evening-primrose (O. speciosa) has pink or white flowers.

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Taxonomy

Order

Myrtales

Family

Oenothera - Primroses - Sundrops

Genus

Oenothera

Characteristics

Bloom Time

Summer, Fall, Spring, Jul, Aug, Sep

Plant Type

Perennials, Herb/Forb, Perennial, Wildflower, Herb

Lifespan

Biennial, Perennial

Plant Height

3-6 ft.

Flower

1-2 in. four-petaled, 4-sepals, 8 stamens and a prominent style with a cross-shaped stigma. Petals are pale lemon yellow and bowl-shaped. Flowers bloom in a multi-flowered terminal panicle, they open in the evening and remain open through morning, closing in the heat of day.

How to Grow

Water

Low, Average, Mesic, Dry Mesic, Medium

Sunlight

Full Sun, Partial Sun, Full Sun to Partial Shade, Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day), Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours), Sun, Part Shade, Shade

Soil

Rocky or sandy soils.

Benefits
Attracts

Birds

Bees

Butterflies

Other Beneficial Insects: Sphinx moths

Pollinators

Songbirds

Specialized Bees

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