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Blackberry

Botanical Name:

Rubus

Common Name:

Blackberry,Bramble

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Description

Shrubs, subshrubs, or herbs, perennial, 0.5–30(–50) dm; fibrous, ± woody in species with larger plants. Stems 1–several, biennial or perennial, rarely annual (R. illecebrosus), erect, arching, mounding, or creeping, rarely decumbent, ascending, or scrambling, rooting or not at nodes or tips, terete or angled; prickles absent or sparse to dense, erect to retrorse, weak to stout, broad based or not; bristles absent or sparse to dense, erect to slightly retrorse, weak to stiff; glabrous or hairy, eglandular or stipitate-glandular, sometimes sessile-glandular, pruinose or not. Leaves winter-persistent to deciduous, cauline; stipules filiform or elliptic to ovate, margins entire; petiole present; blade reniform to orbiculate, 2–30 cm, herbaceous to ± coriaceous, leaflets 0 or 3, 5, 7, or 9, terminal ovate to elliptic to obovate, 1.7–15 cm, base cuneate to rounded or cordate, sometimes truncate, rarely tapered or obtuse, unlobed or lobed, margins flat or revolute, finely to coarsely crenate, dentate to doubly dentate, or serrate to doubly serrate, abaxial surface unarmed or with prickles on midvein consistent with those on stems, glabrous or ± densely hairy, eglandular or ± densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes sessile-glandular, along veins. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, 1–35(–100)-flowered, cymiform, racemiform, umbelliform, thyrsiform, or paniculiform, glabrous or sparsely to densely pubescent, eglandular or sparsely to densely glandular, armed or unarmed; bracts usually present; bracteoles absent. Pedicels present, unarmed or sparsely armed with prickles similar to those of stems, glabrous or sparsely to densely hairy, eglandular or sparsely to densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes sessile-glandular. Flowers bisexual (unisexual in R. chamaemorus, R. ursinus, and subg. Micranthobatus [in the sense of Kalkman]), 5–80 mm diam.; hypanthium 3–10 mm diam., glabrous or sparsely to densely pubescent, eglandular or sparsely to densely glandular; sepals 5, erect or spreading to reflexed, lanceolate to long-caudate, unarmed or armed, glabrous or hairy, eglandular or sparsely to densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes sessile-glandular; petals (0–)5(or 6), white to pink or magenta, suborbiculate to elliptic, obovate, or spatulate; stamens 20–100+, shorter to longer than petals, filaments filiform or laminar; carpels glabrous or hairy, styles slender or clavate. Fruits aggregated drupelets, (1–)5–100[–150], not or weakly to strongly coherent, separating with or without torus attached, golden yellow to red or black, globose to hemispheric or cylindric, 5–20 mm, fleshy or dryish, glabrous or finely hairy, sometimes pruinose; hypanthium usually persistent; sepals usually persistent, usually reflexed. Seeds 1 per drupelet. x = 7.

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Taxonomy

Order

Rosales

Family

Rosaceae

Genus

Rubus

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